With the advent of AI in the multi-sectoral economic and social landscape of India, the role of policymakers has gained primary importance. From the early 2000s till today, several initiatives, policies, and discussions have marked the legal landscape of the position of AI in India. The efforts of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and NITI Aayog particularly stand out as the driving forces for developing the AI ecosystem in India. In the year 2017, the ‘Task Force on Artificial Intelligence for India’s Economic Transformation’ was constituted. It recommended a series of steps and initiatives proposed under AI research and development for our economic, political, and legal ecosystems. Most notably, it emphasized the need for bilateral cooperation through leveraging partnerships and sharing technological processes for a more efficient outcome.  Several initiatives, projects, and schemes have been proposed by various ministries and government agencies involving data governance and regulations. 
This Article traces the different collaborations between industry representatives, academic organizations, and central and state governments on AI and highlights how they work to ensure a smooth flow of data from one sector to another maximizing the AI landscape to a new level.
COLLABORATIONS BETWEEN STATE DEPARTMENTS AND MINISTRIES
FutureSkills Prime is a joint initiative by MeitY and several organizations in the IT industry, led by NASSCOM modeled as a B2C framework for re-skilling/upskilling IT and non-IT professionals in the emergence of AI.  The National Strategy on AI noted the lack of talent in emerging technologies which has prevented early developments of AI.  In this context, such an initiative plays an important role in enhancing the talent pool and strengthening self-capabilities. The National AI Portal of India is another joint initiative of MeitY, the National eGovernance Division, and NASSCOM, which is developing a portal that aims to be a holistic content powerhouse and a knowledge repository for AI in India. Such initiatives shall play an important role in spreading awareness to key beneficiaries such as aspiring entrepreneurs, students, professionals, and academicians. 
Natural Languages Translation Mission is an initiative developed by MeitY, alongside the Ministry of Electronics (MoE) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST). It is a platform for machine-aided translation between English and Indian languages in order to form an inclusive knowledge society by using AI-powered language platforms. This is a great example of carrying AI into the deep roots of Indian society irrespective of literacy in the English language and thereby further strengthening the multilingual heritage of India. 
In addition to the above, several other projects have been proposed and executed, such as the Virtual and Augmented Centre of Entrepreneurship established in Bhubaneshwar, which is a collaboration between MeitY, the Government of Odisha, and IIIT Bhubaneshwar. At the outset, the idea is to develop a high-potential ecosystem to undertake research in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.  Software Technology Parks of India, set up by MeitY in 1991 is an autonomous organization with the core objective of promoting India’s software exports and establishing a Centre for Entrepreneurship dedicated exclusively to AI-based technology. 
ROLE OF AI IN STRENGTHENING THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
India has made significant strides recently in developing the tools, processes, and technology needed to produce legal knowledge and apply it to delivery systems. Legal text summarizing, fact-search identification, court administration, precedent retrieval, contract analysis, and argument mining are some cases of AI deployment in the judicial system.
Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court’s Efficiency (SUPACE) is a portal established by the AI Committee of the Supreme Court of India. Its AI-powered workflow comprises three parts: file previews which typically browse through all the files; a chatbot that gives a quick overview of the case; and the logic gate which provides proper chronology and judgments to the case. Such initiatives carry the potential to have a tremendous impact on the justice delivery system of the country. 
The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in In Re: Prajwala Letter in 2015 set up a Committee to detect videos of child pornography, rape, and gang rape. The Committee in 2017 proposed the need for research on AI/Deep Learning/Machine Learning-based technologies, and hosting platforms to review existing architecture to screen/verify uploads under AI-based tools. The matter is currently pending adjudication, which if implemented can make the identification of such crimes very easy. 
The Hon’ble Delhi High Court in the case of Tata Sky Limited vs. National Internet Exchange of India(NIXI) and Ors. observed that AI can be deployed to prevent trademark infringement and violations at the time of registration to examine and verify whether the domain that is to be registered is similar to an existing trademark or domain name.  The Indian judiciary has displayed a keen interest in deploying AI-based solutions for the efficient delivery of justice.
AI IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR
The State of Education Report in India, 2022 aims to study the use of AI in the educational sector with the objective of providing guidance.  Leading institutions in India have begun offering AI-related courses and initiated research and development initiatives in collaboration with other entities.
The Robert Bosch Centre for Data Science and Artificial Intelligence was established in August 2017 at IIT Madras. Research is focused on addressing fundamental challenges in AI and other research projects including multiple networks for models, algorithms, and applications. It also focuses on tackling cyber attacks, data mining, and traffic congestion in Indian cities by developing appropriate systems and data grids.  AI4Bharat is a similar platform launched by them that provides solutions to tackle regional impediments and issues in agriculture, healthcare, and other services.  A group of professors at IIT Madras have also initiated the ‘Human in Loop Learning’ that investigates paradigms, interpretable models, and algorithms.  It has also come up with PIVOT, an AI tool to predict cancer-causing genes, by utilizing information on the functional impact of an altered gene expression. This achievement is a big milestone in the development of AI-based early cancer detection and personalized cancer-care medicines, providing a huge impetus to the Indian health-tech space. 
IIT Delhi and Yale School of AI are working to create fair AI deployment in multiple sectors like commerce, transportation, education, and health. Under the Data Analytics and Intelligence Research, IIT Delhi has been studying the vitality of transient social networks, questions around efficient inference, and other models.  Similarly, IIT Kharagpur is also engaged in research on the application of AI in the automation of the reading of legal documents and automatic inspection of goods produced by the micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSME) sectors.  Most notably, such collaborative research projects only widen the scope of innovative projects and opportunities in India’s social innovation, entrepreneurship, and development sectors.
AI IN INDUSTRY
The private sector is also speedily and steadily developing AI tools and solutions for efficiency and ease of delivery of services. Wadwani AI has developed a tool that detects COVID-19 infections based on the sound of coughing through AI and this diagnostic tool could also be used to detect and intervene in the early stage of diseases such as Tuberculosis.  It will be a boon to the Indian population, where TB continues to be endemic to India and proves challenging in the dispensation of public health services. Wadhwani is also undertaking research on newborn anthropometry aimed at developing accurate, timely, geo-tagged, and tamper-proof weight estimation tools. The smartphone-based AI tool scans images of neonates and can predict their susceptibility to mortality and other risks. This will eventually help frontline workers in rural homes and hospital settings against differentiated interventions in TB diagnosis and treatment across the cascade of care. 
Bosch established the Bosch Centre for AI in 2017 to lay down the technological groundwork for AI to have a measurable impact.  Likewise, Hindalco is also using AI techniques to predict the status of machinery equipment in terms of its degradation with advance notification of upcoming breakdowns and repair costs as well. This is aimed at reducing costs, improving production, and increasing the life of the equipment. 
PayPal has proposed an AI-based technique that will carry out a cross-sectional analysis of customers’ transactional histories that will enable fairer and more transparent creditworthiness assessments. This can also be used for gauging marketing response and fraud risk assessments.  Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd. has also adopted ‘AI-based video KYC’ that verifies the Permanent Account Numbers (PAN) of consumers in real-time. This will be based on the use of facial and image recognition technology to carry out the verification, along with conducting geolocation and Internet Protocol Checks. 
Companies like TVS Motors and BAJAJ Allianz General Insurance are also deploying AI for enhanced consumer experience through technological innovation such as rapid customer services, chatbots, and portals. Bajaj Allianz has launched its chatbot called Buddy for its customers. Digiswasth and Saksham are also developed to ensure better detection and recording of the medical histories of consumers. 
The e-commerce industry is expanding and so is the deployment of AI among its key players. Amazon uses the concept of ‘flywheel’ in all its organizational operations to ensure efficient communication of data and information through all its internal departments and maintain a flow in the workload.  Myntra Rapido is used by Myntra to reduce the production process to deliver the latest trends in the markets.  Flipkart in collaboration with IIT Patna is focusing on bringing real-world industry exposure to students and scholars of IIT Patna and providing an opportunity for the faculty members to work closely with them on research projects.  In addition to the above, Snapdeal has partnered with GoKwik to provide enhanced customer experience using historical data and customer behavior patterns. 
Therefore, it is evident that the private industry is keen on using AI tools for various advantages that it possesses. However, the rapid spread of AI in the private sector in the absence of a robust regulatory framework raises serious questions of privacy concerns.
START-UPS & AI
It is to be noted that the use of AI-based tools has not only been limited to dominant market players but also an increasing number of Startups. Below are the highlights of a few use cases of AI within the thriving Startup economy of India.
- Uniphore is developing a deep learning model that is built upon conversational AI technology that recognizes speech and text, understands sentiment and intent, and can decipher multiple languages, to further leverage it to businesses globally to deliver transformational customer services. 
- Yello.AI is another leading startup that provides software platforms that serve as an enterprise AI channel for customer engagement. 
- Minus Zero is in the process of deploying automated car models in India. 
- Cropin is developing tech-based solutions to deliver future-ready farming solutions in the agricultural sector, including decision-making tools with live reporting, data analysis, data interpretation, and more. 
India’s tech landscape has witnessed an explosion of startups dedicated to artificial intelligence (AI) development. The general trend shows that most startups are inclined toward developing AI-infused Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solutions. The Indian AI startup ecosystem has been gaining traction due to the diverse application of its inventive solutions, across sectors, such as education, healthcare, computing, robotics, agriculture, and social development. Moreover, with support from the State, especially through initiatives like ‘Startup India’ and ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’, a boost to the startup ecosystem has been provided, offering financial incentives, tax benefits, and relaxed regulations.
Recently, IndiaAI, under the Digital India Corporation, and Meta, Inc. have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) aiming at advancing research in AI and other emerging technologies.  The MoU envisions the advancement of technology to the broader population and envisages Meta’s open approach to AI innovation to complement India’s leadership in the digital world.
THE WAY FORWARD
The numerous collaborative projects mentioned display the gaining propensity with which the Indian Government intends to carry out AI development in the country. The advantages that AI poses have already resulted in its large-scale deployment by various sectors. Therefore, the role of the Central Government becomes imperative in framing adequate regulatory mechanisms for AI deployment while keeping an open and enabling legal, financial, and political environment toward innovation and collaborative partnerships. Ongoing and future collaborations with private companies remain an important measure to advance innovation. It must be reiterated, however, that AI systems utilise vast amounts of data which must be subject to data protection practices to reduce possibilities of harm to the users.
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